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Geochemistry & Diagenesis

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Sedimentary Geology
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Carbonate Geology
Petroleum Geology
Sequence Stratigraphy
Geochemisry & Diagenesis
Tectonic and Sedimentary Processes
Researchers doing geochemical and diagenetic research include Tony Walton who works on the diagenesis of sandstone reservoirs and volcanic rocks, Bob Goldstein who works on fluid inclusions and integrating diagenesis with sequence stratigraphy, Paul Enos who works on various projects in carbonate diagenesis, Luis Gonzalez who works on isotopic systems in carbonates, Jennifer Robert Rogers who specializes in microbial mediation of weathering reactions, and Gwen Macpherson who works on diverse projects in hydrogeochemistry.

The program houses extensive equipment available for research
in sedimentary geochemistry including:
  • Fluid inclusion lab featuring a fluid inc and Linkam heating and freezing stage
  • Automated cathodoluminescence system with high resolution digital imaging
  • Microsampling equipment
  • Rigaku Geigorflex automated X-ray diffractometer
  • Rigaku SMAX X-ray fluorescence machine
  • Range of quality of microscopes and digital video displays
  • VG-PQIIXS ICPMS for trace elements
  • JY Ultrace-138 ICP.AES major and minors
  • Laser ablation microprobe
  • Ion Chromatograph
  • Clean room facilities
  • Thermochronology lab of U-Th/He dating of thermal history in sedimentary basins
  • Stable isotope facility for C and O isotope analyses featuring gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometer with Keil device for automated reaction of carbonates (under construction)
  • LEO field-emission scanning electron microscope, equipped with externally controllable scan generator and computer-controlled motor driven stage and system back scattered electron dectector, EDAX electron backscattering spectroscopy, energy dispersive system and Gatan color cathodoluminescence detector
  • Heavy isotope Geochemistry Laboratory (U, Pb, Sr, Nd) featuring a fully-automated VG Sector computer-controlled variable 6-collector system with a 10-sample turret Daly multiplier, for high-sensitivity counting, optical pyrometer

Tony Walton - Dr. Walton has published on the diagenesis of both normal sedimentary rocks and on the diagenesis of volcaniclastic sediments. Current projects include a study of alteration of basaltic hyaloclastite material from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project hole at the Hilo Airport, as well as a continuing interest in the diagenesis of Pennsylvanian siliciclastics in Kansas oil fields.

Bob Goldstein -One of Bob's specialties is to study the diagenesis of carbonates and siliciclastics. He applies a variety of geochemical techniques, but in particular focuses on development of the fluid inclusion technique in sedimentary geology. Currently, he is working on the importance of the mixing zones in diagenesis, relating climate to diagenesis, and relating tectonic setting to diagenetic alteration. He is carefully working on the integration of sequence stratigraphy and diagenesis of carbonate reservoir facies.

Luis Gonzalez - Luis concentrates on stable isotope systematics of carbonate minerals in relation to paleoclimate systematics and carbonate diagenesis.

Paul Enos - Paul has worked extensively on the diagenesis of carbonate rocks. Most recently Paul went to sea with the Ocean Drilling Program to study drowned atolls and carbonate platforms in the northwest Pacific. He headed up the diagenetic study of cores recovered from that cruise.

Jennifer Roberts - Jennifer's research explores the role microorganisms play in global silicate weathering. Microbial weathering dominates diagenesis in some environments, producing a biological weathering history in the rock record that has no relationship to traditional abiotic weathering sequences. Therefore, examining how and why microorganisms weather silicates may bring us to a better understanding of the link between biology and geology through geologic time.

Gwen Macpherson - Gwen studies water-rock interaction in deep sedimentary basins, with past work on volatile elements (Li and B) as indicators of closed- or open-system state of the Gulf Coast Sedimentary Basin, and feldspar-hosted trace elements (Ba) as indicators of degree of feldspar diagenesis. Work in progress is restricted to investigation of sources of bromide (Br) and iodide (I) with implications for interpretation of bromide-chloride ratios, traditionally thought to reflect only original seawater composition (with or without evaporation) and interaction with evaporite minerals such as halite.

Bob Buddemeier - Bob Buddemeier is particularly interested in macro- and meso-scale biogeochemical processes and budgets. He leads a coastal zone typology effort that is a major component of a project to assess the coastal zone role on global fluxes of C, N and P (http://water.kgs.ukans.edu:8888/public/Typpages/index.htm). He is particularly interested in biogeochemical feedbacks in the global carbonate cycle. His interests in the rlationship of hydrologic and sediment fluxes to the coastal zone and their effects on biogeomorphology overlay with the areas of carbonates and sediments. He works on carbon and salt flux issues in continental aquatic systems.

Examples of recent publications

Mallarino, G., Goldstein, R.H., and Di Stefano, P. 2002, New Approach for quantifying water depth applied to the enigma of drowning of carbonate platforms: Geology, v. 30, p. 783-786.

Benison, K.C., and Goldstein, R.H. 2002, Recognizing acid lakes and groundwaters in the rock record: Sedimentary Geology, v. 151, p. 177-185

Cornette, J.L., Lieberman, B., S., and Goldstein, R.H. 2002, Documenting a significant relationship between macroevolutionary origination rates and Phanerozoic pCO2 levels: PNAS, v. 99, p. 7832-7835

Rossi, C., Goldstein, R.H., Ceriani, A., and Marfil, R. 2002, Fluid inclusions record thermal and fluid evolution in reservoir sandstones, Khatatba Formation, Western Desert, Egypt: A case for fluid injection: AAPG Bulletin, v. 86, p. 1773-1799.

Goldstein, R.H. and Rossi, C. 2002, Recrystallization in Quartz Overgrowths: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 72, p. 432-440.

Ceriani, A., Di Guilio, A., Goldstein, R.H., and Rossi, C. 2002, Diagenesis associated with cooling during burial: An example from Lower Cretaceous reservoir sandstones (Sirt basin, Libya): AAPG Bulletin, v. 86, p. 1573-1591.

Goldstein, R.H. 2001, Perspectives: Paleoenvironment, Clues from Fluid Inclusions, Science, v. 294, p. 1009-1010.

Benison, K. and Goldstein, R.H. 2001, Evaporites and siliciclastics of the Permian Nippewalla Group of Kansas: A case for deposition in saline lakes and saline pans: Sedimentology, v. 48, p. 165-188

C. Rossi, R. Marfil, R.H. Goldstein, R. Salas, A. Permanyer, J.A. de la Pea, M.A. Caja, and M.I. Benito (2001) Diagenetic and oil migration history of the Kimmeridgian Ascla Formation, Maestrat Basin, Spain, Marine and Petroleum Geology v.18 (3), p. 287-306

Goldstein, R. H. 2001, Fluid inclusions in sedimentary and diagenetic systems, Lithos, v. 55, 159-193

Rossi, C., Goldstein, R.H., and Marfil, R. 2000, Pore fluid evolution and quartz diagenesis in the Khatatba Formation, Western Desert, Egypt: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 69-70, p. 91-96

Luczaj, J. A. and Goldstein, R.H. 2000, Diagenesis of the lower Permian Krider Member, southwest Kansas: fluid inclusion, U-Pb, and fission-track evidence for reflux dolomitization during latest Permian time: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 70, p. 762-773

Rasbury, E. T., Meyers, W.J., Hanson, G.N., Goldstein, R.H., and Saller, A.H. (2000) Relationship of uranium to petrography of caliche paleosols with application to precisely dating the time of sedimentation: Journal of Sedimentary Research, p. 604-618.

Newell, K.D., and Goldstein, R.H. 1999, Evidence from fluid inclusions on depths, timing, and environments of dolomitization in Ordovician Viola Formation, Kansas, USA; in Proceedings of the Fifteenth Biennial European Conference on Research on Fluid Inclusions, Potsdam, Germany: Terra Nostra 99 (GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam), v. 6 , p. 214-216

Newell, K. D., and Goldstein, R.H. 1999, A new technique for surface and shallow subsurface paleobarometry using fluid inclusions: an example form the Upper Ordovician Viola formation, Kansas, USA: Chemical Geology, v. 154, p.97-111.

Benison, K. C., and Goldstein, R. H. 1999, Permian paleoclimate data from Fluid Inclusions in Halite: Chemical Geology

Frappier, A., Sahagian, D., Gonzalez, L. A., and Carpenter, S. J. 2002, El Nino events recorded by stalagmite carbon isotopes: Science, v. 298, p. 565.

Baker, R. G., Bettis III, E. A., Denniston, R. F., Gonzalez, L. A., Strickland, L. E., and Krieg, J. R. 2002, Holocene paleoenvironments in southeastern Minnesota – chasing the prairie-forest ecotone: Palaeogeography, Palaeoecology, Palaeoclimatology v. 177, p. 103-122.

Denniston, R. F., Gonzalez, L. A., Asmerom, Y., Polyak, V., Reagan, M. K., Saltzman, M. R. 2001, A high- resolution speleothem record of climatic variability during the AllerŅd-Younger Dryas transition in Missouri, central United States: Palaeogeography, Palaeoecology, Palaeoclimatology, v. 176, p. 147-155.

Baker, R. G., Bettis, E. A. III, Denniston, R. F., and Gonzalez, L. A. 2001, Plant remains, alluvial chronology, and cave speleothem isotopes indicate abrupt Holocene climatic change at 6ka in Midwestern USA, Global and Planetary Change, v. 28, p.285-291.

Denniston, R. F., Gonzalez, L. A., Asmerom, Y., Reagan, M. K., and Recelli-Snyder, H. 2000, Speleothem carbon isotopic records of early Holocene environments in the Ozark Highlands, U.S.A. Quaternary International, v. 67, p. 21-27.

Denniston, R. F., Gonzalez, L. A., Asmerom, Y., Baker, R. G., Reagan, M. K. Bettis, E. A. III 1999, Evidence for increased cool season moisture during the middle Holocene: Geology, v. 27 (9), p. 815-818.

Ufnar D. F., Gonzalez, L. A., Ludvigson, G. A., Brenner, R. L., and Witzke, B. J. 2002, The mid-Cretaceous water bearer: isotope mass balance quantification of the Albian hydrologic cycle: Palaeogeography, Palaeoecology, Palaeoclimatology v. 188, p. 51-71.

Ufnar D. F., Gonzalez, L. A., Ludvigson, G. A., Brenner, R. L., and Witzke, B. J. 2001, Stratigraphic implications of meteoric sphaerosiderite _18O compositions in paleosols of the Cretaceous (Albian) Boulder Creek Formation, NE British Columbia foothills, Canada: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 71, No. 6, p. 119-130.

White, T. S., Gonzalez, L. A., Ludvigson, G. A., and Poulsen, C. J. 2001, Middle Cretaceous Greenhouse Hydrologic Cycle of North America: Geology, v. 29, no. 4, p. 363-366.

Gonzalez, L. A., Neuhoff, P. S., Larue, D. K.,Uribe, R. M., and Ruiz, H. M. in review, Diagenesis of hydrocarbon bearing concretions in south-central Puerto Rico: Tectonism and early hydrocarbon generation. Submitted to AAPG Bulletin, 20 ms p., 11, figs. 1 table.

Rogers, J.R., Bennett, P.C., and Choi, W.J. 2001. Enhanced weathering of silicates by subsurface microorganisms: a strategy to release limiting inorganic nutrients? Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, Cagliari, Sardinia.

Bennett, P.C., Rogers, J.R., Hiebert, F.K, and Choi, W.J. 2001, Mineralogy, mineral weathering, and microbial ecology. Geomicrobiology Journal, 18, 3-19.

Bennett, P.C., Hiebert, F.K., and Rogers, J.R. 2000, Microbial control of mineral-water equilibria macroscale to microscale. Hydrogeology Journal, 8, 47-62.

Rogers, J.R., Bennett, P.C., and Hiebert, F.K. 1999, Patterns of microbial colonization on silicates, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T., eds., U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999—Volume3 of 3--Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and Related Ecosystems: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4018B, pp. 237-242.

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